Certain risk factors are determined by the individual’s genetic makeup. Salivary flow and composition affects the natural clearance of both food debris and cariogenic bacteria. Morphology of the tooth influences deposit of food debris, removal of biofilm, and susceptibility to caries.
Different bacteria strain have different levels of ceriogenicity. Cariogenic bacteria screening can predict the risk of caries development.
An individual’s diet, hygiene, and fluoride use all influence the development of caries. Frequent exposure to sugary snacks and foods increase caries development. Good oral hygiene reduces cariogenic bacteria levels thus reducing caries development. Fluoride treatment makes enamel more resistant to acid erosion thus slowing caries development.